A focus on morality in nietzsches work beyond good and evil
Beyond good and evil nietzsche summary
And you yourselves are also this will to power — and nothing besides! Now the IC puts a constraint on what things can, in fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only those things that agents can, in fact, care about or desire. While this section has focused on the Genealogy, it is worth noting that its three studies are offered only as examples of Nietzschean skepticism about conventional moral ideas. Recall P : P To show that something is desirable i. The nature of the game, he holds, establishes a standard for the evaluation of everything falling within its compass. Note, of course, that the Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only that power is what is non-morally valuable or good for an agent. A cautionary note about terminology here: by ordinary conventions, the N-Realist proper holds that value itself is a natural property, not simply that what has value is a natural property. While the sections within a part are often thematically related see, e. Far from being a moral nihilist, Nietzsche in fact labors to construct a life-serving moral system in Beyond Good and Evil. Scattered throughout his largely hostile assessment of religion in Beyond Good and Evil are praises of non-Christian religions such as Judaism and Greek paganism. For example, in GS 2 Nietzsche expresses bewilderment in the face of people who do not value honesty: I do not want to believe it although it is palpable: the great majority of people lacks an intellectual conscience.
The truth of this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the corresponding descriptive thesis. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the argument for N-Realism still depends on the truth of the relevant descriptive thesis, in Nietzsche's case, the doctrine of the will to power.
Nietzsche morality beyond good and evil
Not only do standard moral commitments lack a foundation we thought they had, but stripped of their veneer of unquestionable authority, they prove to have been not just baseless but positively harmful. Notice, now, that the same type of argument seems to capture what the N-Realist construal of Nietzsche has in mind. Everything that heightens the feeling of power in man, the will to power, power itself. At age 24, he was the youngest ever appointed to that post. Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the very strongest form of the doctrine of the will to power — namely, that all force, animate and inanimate, is will to power — given the putative argument he gives for it. The exact nature of this alleged revolt is a matter of ongoing scholarly controversy in recent literature, see Bittner ; Reginster ; Migotti ; Ridley ; May 41—54; Leiter —; Janaway 90—, —9; Owen 78—89; Wallace ; Anderson ; Poellner , but the broad outline is clear enough. Others e. Honesty would lead to nausea and suicide. Human greatness would be an important element of his future religion, not equality. Then as now, most philosophers assumed that a secular vindication of morality would surely be forthcoming and would save the large majority of our standard commitments. That critique is directed in large measure against aspects of morality that turn the agent against herself—or more broadly, against the side of Christianity that condemns earthly existence, demanding that we repent of it as the price of admission to a different, superior plane of being. Will you help us remain a refreshing oasis in the increasingly contentious arena of modern discourse? But for a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the very appeal of morality that it does thwart the flourishing of higher men. The key point of the authors' reading is that "the drives are arranged not merely in a causal order but in a political one" Looking away shall be my only negation.
Consider, for example, the stance of Schopenhauerian pessimism, according to which human life and the world have negative absolute value. If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of views about evaluative questions.
The first, and perhaps less serious one, is that we must have some reason for accepting the IC — or, more modestly, some reason for thinking Nietzsche accepts it.
A focus on morality in nietzsches work beyond good and evil
The difficulty is that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the stronger remarks are misleading; for example: Life itself is to my mind the instinct for growth, for durability, for an accumulation of forces, for power: where the will to power is lacking there is decline. It is misguided both because it runs the risk of robbing individuals of their opportunity to make something positive individually meaningful out of their suffering, and because the global devaluation of suffering as such dismisses in advance the potentially valuable aspects of our general condition as vulnerable and finite creatures GS ; compare Williams 82— His first book, The Birth of Tragedy out of the Spirit of Music , was not the careful work of classical scholarship the field might have expected, but a controversial polemic combining speculations about the collapse of the tragic culture of fifth century Athens with a proposal that Wagnerian music-drama might become the source of a renewed tragic culture for contemporary Germany. Nietzsche had a brilliant school and university career, culminating in May when he was called to a chair in classical philology at Basel. Readers interested in this issue about the compatibility of Nietzschean affirmation with Nietzschean critique should also consult Huddleston, forthcoming, a, which reaches a more diffident conclusion than this entry. For Nietzsche, that involves a two-sided project: it should both undermine values by reference to which the world could not honestly be affirmed, while also articulating the values exemplified by life and the world that make them affirmable. Will this argument rescue the N-Realist Nietzsche? Much like religion and philosophy, it is not virtue per se that he detests.
As a result, he was freed to write and to develop the style that suited him. Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of admiration? It is the kind of thorough, passionate and fascinating investigation one could only wish to come across more often, especially in the field of Nietzsche studies.
He published a book almost every year thereafter. Nietzsche's answer appears to be this: because suffering is positively necessary for the cultivation of human excellence — which is the only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for Nietzsche.
EH II While this section has focused on the Genealogy, it is worth noting that its three studies are offered only as examples of Nietzschean skepticism about conventional moral ideas. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to MPS is that it thwarts the development of human excellence. Nonetheless, the authors are right in stressing that Nietzsche's texts are written so as to misguide hasty readers and that his usage of certain terms differs from the current one.
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